Measles: update March 2019
Health officials are urging New Zealanders to stay alert to symptoms of measles and ensure that children aged between 15 months and 4 years receive their normal MMR vaccinations.
Measles is a highly infectious airborne virus which affects both children and adults.
Whilst there has been no confirmed cases of measles in Hawke’s Bay, it is possible it could spread to the region given an ongoing outbreak of measles in Christchurch and confirmed cases in Auckland and Dunedin. More cases are also being confirmed internationally.
What are the symptoms of measles?
Measles symptoms are:
- cough or runny nose or conjunctivitis
- fever above 38.50c
- a rash.
If you’re sick stay home – this is good advice if you have any respiratory or flu-like illness. Telephone your GP for advice – do not go to your GP in person as you may spread the illness to other people in the waiting room. Remember in Hawke’s Bay you can call your own General Practice after hours – and be put through to a clinic that is open for free health advice. You can also call Healthline for free 24/7 advice on 0800 611 116.
How does measles spread?
Measles is a highly infectious virus that spreads easily from person to person through the air, via breathing, coughing and sneezing. It affects both children and adults.
It is spread through droplets in the air and through contact, so that anyone unimmunised who has been in the same room as someone with measles will likely get it.
Anyone with measles needs to be isolated from the time they become ill until 5 days after the rash has appeared. It is extremely important to stay in isolation if you’re asked to do so, to protect vulnerable people including babies, pregnant women, cancer patients and others who are unable to be immunised.
Who is protected from measles?
People who have had two MMR vaccinations (typically given at 15months and 4 years) are considered immune from measles.
People born before 1969 will have been exposed to the measles virus and will have acquired immunity.
Those born between 1969 and 1990 were only offered one measles vaccination are considered to have a good level of protection – a single dose of the MMR typically provides protection against measles to 95% of people vaccinated. The immunity of this population is much higher than previously thought.
Are MMR vaccinations free?
How long does it take for the vaccination to work?
It takes two weeks for a person to be fully immune after a vaccination.
What to do if there’s been a case of measles in a school or pre-school?
Most students in Hawke’s Bay have good immunity against measles.
Health authorities will be in contact with any school or early childhood education centre where there has been a confirmed case and advise accordingly.
If there is a confirmed case at their preschool, child care centre or school, then parents should keep their unimmunised child at home.
What if there’s been a case of measles in a workplace?
Most people in workplaces are likely to have good immunity against measles. Those born before 1969, and those born after 1992 who have had two MMR vaccinations, are considered immune from measles. Most people aged between 29 and 50 have received one dose – one MMR protects 95% of people against developing measles.
Health authorities will be in contact with a workplace where there has been a confirmed case and advise accordingly.
Can pregnant women get vaccinated?
Pregnant women cannot be immunised with MMR as it is a live vaccine. See details at www.immune.org.nz
Instead, pregnant women who are not immune and who have come into contact with a measles case within six days will be given immunoglobulin which confers passive immunity.
If you're pregnant and think you have come into contact with someone with measles, and aren’t sure if you’re immune, you should speak to your midwife and see your general practitioner (GP) as soon as possible.
Generally speaking, most women of childbearing age in New Zealand have been immunised as a child against measles. Women who are unsure of their immunisation status can seek advice from their GP.
If a pregnant women is not immune, and contracts measles during pregnancy, she may be at increased risk of miscarriage, premature labour, or a low birthweight baby. These effects are not common however it is important to be aware of this.
If you contract measles during pregnancy, your midwife will discuss with you how to access additional care during your pregnancy to monitor your baby’s wellbeing, and to ensure follow up care for your baby after he or she is born. It is very important to avoid contact with others while you are infectious with the measles. Please make contact with healthcare providers by telephone in the first instance.
As the MMR (Measles Mumps Rubella) vaccine is a live weakened vaccine, it is not advisable to receive this vaccine while pregnant.
Mums with newborns:
Breastfeeding can provide passive immunity to babies. Breastfeeding is strongly encouraged, especially for babies under 12 months of age, as this can provide protection against measles.
Note: Passive immunity is the passing of antibodies from an immune person to a non-immune person, providing temporary protection against disease-causing bacteria or viruses. Maternal antibodies are transferred to a baby in utero (via the placenta) and through breastfeeding (via colostrum and breastmilk).
Generally speaking, most women of childbearing age in New Zealand have been immunised against measles as a child. Women who are unsure of their immunisation status can seek advice from their GP.
If a pregnant woman is known to have been exposed to someone who has been diagnosed with measles, please advise her to contact her general practice team immediately who can organise administration of immunoglobulin to provide protection. Immunoglobulin can be given to non-immune pregnant women (and is effective) up to 6 days after exposure to a confirmed case – not during the illness. Information about this process is available on Health Pathways.